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Introduction IX Community Energy Research and Development Strategy Programme Characteristics ImpLementation and Supervision Structure Status of Implementation Diffusion of Knowledge and Results Information for Future Proponents Breakdown of Support by Sector Breakdown of Projects by Sector Geophysics and Prospecting DrilLing 57 Production Systems 79 Secondary and Enhanced Recovery 183 Environmental Influence on Offshore 245 Auxiliary Ships and Submersibles 253 Pipelines 271 Transport 289 Natural Gas Technology 313 Energy Sources 323 Storage 333 MisceLlaneous 343 v PREFACE The 1973 oil crisis highLighted the dependency of the Community on imported hydrocarbons to satisfy its energy demand. Therefore, in order to improve security of suppLy the Community has deveLoped since 1973 a programme assisting the oiL industry to develop new technoLogies required for expLoiting oiL and gas resources outside and inside the Community territories. This programme (ReguLations 3056/73 and 3639/85) has aLLowed remarkabLe achievements in a sector where innovation is needed to take up the chaLLenge of producing oiL and gas in difficuLt environments. This report shows the achievements of the Community programme. It gives evidence of the high technicaL LeveL which has aLready been attained by the companies in the oiL and gas sector with the support of the Community.