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The monograph consists of an introduction and two major parts. The first part surveys the data on cultured biomass and the key biomass products that can be processed into valuable organic compounds and fuel components. The second part is devoted to new catalytic reactions developed in the last decade at the A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrating promising routes for conversion of the key biomass products to fuel components and monomers. The monograph addresses the catalytic reactions of reductive dehydration of ethanol and other alcohols to various classes of hydrocarbons; selective deoxygenation of vegetable oils and a broad range of esters resulting in a nearly quantitative formation of organic hydrocarbon fragments of the initial compounds and water; direct ethanol conversion to butanol and minor amounts of C6 and C8 alcohols; and crosscondensation of ethanol and 2-propanol to 2-pentanol. Special emphasis is placed on the structure of new and commercial catalysts used in these reactions.