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Due to increasing automation the type of human work in many areas has changed from predominant manual work to predominant mental work. A typical nature of mental work is the execution of internal mental activities by human, which cannot be observed directly.
However, the observable behaviour of the body can provide an insight in the mental state of human because of the relationship between cognition and external activities. A series of methods for workload measurement in mental work have been comprehensively applied: physiological measures, subjective questionnaires, performance or errors, and task-related body actions measure. It is obvious that each of these methods has limitations, e.g. concerning intrusiveness. Moreover, each measure can generally reflect one part of workload. Whole workload is often explained by an integration of many measures (e.g. errors and subjective questionnaire).
So far, non-task-related body behaviour is used rarely as an indicator for work demands and workload. Hence, the question was examined in this work that whether body behaviour (especially non-task-related behaviour) could be a method for measurement of work demand and workload. The major objective in this work is to confirm relationships between body behaviour and workload, as well as between body behaviour and work demands in mental work settings.
Therefore, two studies were conducted, in which body behaviour (task-related and nontask- related) was captured by video recordings. In the first study task-related (head orientation and hand positions) and non-task-related behaviour (trunk positions) of seven executive air traffic controllers in a simulator were analysed. During simulations, two major factors (number of aircrafts and vertical aircraft movements), that contribute work demands on the controllers, were collected automatically.
Every five minutes, the controllers were asked to assess their subjective workload using the NASA-TLX questionnaire. In the second study, the relationships between workload and body behaviour (head positions, trunk positions, leg positions and foot positions) of 22 subjects were analysed. The subjects were asked to perform seven abstract mental tasks in a laboratory-based setting. The tasks covered various components of mental works. After each task the subjects answered the NASA-TLX questionnaire to assess their subjective workload.
The findings in the present thesis support the assumptions that there are the relationships between body behaviour (both task-related and non-task-related) and work demands as well as workload. A major finding of this work is that the non-task-related body behaviour analysis in mental work could be an indicator for workload measurement in mental work settings.
Taschenbuch - 9783935089197
Verlag: Ergonomia Verlag
Ersterscheinung: Juli 2012
Größe: 211 mm x 148 mm x 10 mm
Gewicht: 226 Gramm