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Climate change impacts on biodiversity pose various challenges for adequate management of protected areas that play a key role in biodiversity conservation. This work focuses on Tajikistan, a mountainous country with unique biodiversity, and explores climate change impacts on the biodiversity of one of the most vulnerable reserves rich in biodiversity - Dashtidjum Zakaznik. The current and potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of the zakaznik have been analyzed following the DPSIR approach and based on current knowledge, experts' assumptions and observations. Analysis of meteorological data (1961-2008) has confirmed an increase of mean temperatures and anomalies in precipitation. A vulnerability assessment has shown (i) potential population decline for the majority of species important for conservation, (ii) migration of some species northwards outside the zakaznik, (iii) extirpation of some species, and (iv) increases in population sizes for other species, mainly those that are invasive. An assessment of national policies has identified a number of prerequisites for adaptation measures that may mitigate climate change impacts on the biodiversity of the zakaznik.